When the web first made it big, say in late 1993,
a webmaster was the person in an organization
who could make it happen -
part system administrator (hardware, software),
programmer (cgi-bin, databases),
designer (site layout, logos, other graphics)
and pain in the *ss (gathering content from other groups).
At least that's what my job was.
Over time, the importance of the internet (and specifically the web) has increased that most of these tasks have been assigned to a more specific organization in a company - the programmers took over the creation of dynamic, database-driven content, marketing took over the content and the artists took over the design and graphics.
That left the system administration. It is my impression that webmasters these days are very specific system administrators. Please be aware, however, that the job does mean different things in different companies - there are places where the webmaster is almost a V.P. of Operations, making sure that all the web users have a great experience with the site.
If you have a different perspective on this, please let me know.
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